showing how a teacher could be expected to influence a student’s test scores

THIS week’s looks by a fascinating morsel of statistical work aboard the measure of a appealing teacher. Economists Raj Chetty, John Friedman, and Jonah Rockoff obtained a massive data set from a colossal urban educate system, which covered two.5m students (and 18m test scores) over two decades. With it, they were learned to calculate a measure added score (showing how a teacher could be expected to influence a student’s test scores) for each teacher in the sample—and demonstrate that the score didn’t simply characterize a child’s background advantages, of parental income,case in point Even better, they were capable to narrow the performance of the prime pupils in the example into early manhood and accordingly see how exposure to teachers of various quality actually mattered. The results are remarkable:

They ascertain,for example that the quality of teachers varies much more amid schools than among them: a typical teach has teachers spanning 85% of the spectrum for the educate system as a entire Not only do teachers matter, in other words,merely the best teachers are never generally clumped in particular schools.

Across schools,however better pupils are assigned to slightly better teachers aboard average.

[E]xposure to better teachers is associated with an increased probability of attending university and, among pupils who go on to campus with attendance at better ones, as well consist in higher earnings. Somewhat more unexpectedly,good teachers likewise appear to decrease odds of teenage pregnancy and heave participation in retirement-savings plans. Effects emerge to be stronger as girls than as boys, and English teachers have a longer-lasting influence aboard their pupils’ futures than maths teachers.

The authors reckon that swapping a teacher along the found of the value-added spectrum with an of average quality raises the collective lifetime income of each class they teach according $1.4m. That rise would petition across all the teacher’s classes and over the entire of his alternatively her calling.

In current discounted value terms that works out to $250,000. That namely vastly more than teachers are typically paid per annual And it namely vastly more than educate systems typically try teachers unions in exchange as accepting rigorous assessments, performance disburse and the ability to bag poor teachers. That namely understandable; as the gains accrue to the students themselves over a long duration of period,educate systems can’t very well immerse into them in order to increase teacher compensation today. It does recommend,notwithstanding that reforms which focus on assessing and improving teacher quality are threaten to expenditure off handsomely down the line. And a educate system deciding how to deploy skimpy resources across teaching, administration, technology and other amenities ought reserve that in mind.

which amounted to a ascend in the shadow-price of gold associative apt its lawful spend That

IN ITS most recent to Congress, America’s Treasury mentioned that:

Within the euro location countries with enormous and persistent surpluses need apt take deed to increase servant demand growth and shorten their surpluses. Germany has maintained a tremendous fashionable list accessory throughout the euro area financial crisis and in 2012, Germany’s nominal fashionable menu more was larger than that of China. Germany’s anemic pace of waiter demand growth and dependence aboard exports have hampered rebalancing as long as while much other euro-area countries have been below caustic suppression to curb demand and abbreviate imports in order to enhance adjustment. The net outcome has been a deflationary bias as the euro place as well as for the world economy.

Berlin was never amused; its officials snapped back that the recess of the world should never begrudge Germany success built aboard high-quality export products. But as Paul Krugman , this namely no defence. Current-account surpluses are not determined at how wonderful an economy’s exports are merely by its balance of saving and investment. Both America and Germany generate lots of quality exports,merely America saves much fewer than it invests and so it runs a current-account shortage (the flip-side of which is a capital-account surplus: lots of money flowing into America from overseas.

But why should any of this matter? Well, it does along the moment because rich-world economies are chronically short of demand, and an component of demand isexternal demand. Germany’s tremendous current-account surpus means that it namely enjoying a large chunk of the accessible outer demand across the wealthy world.

That wouldn’t normally be a problem. German surpluses would usually generate appreciation in the German currency, which would eventually reduce the accessory At the same time a shortfall in outer demand in other economies could simply be offset at higher inner demand. But Germany doesn’t have a currency to appreciate; it shares the euro with lots of other economies. Within the euro area real exchange rates tin only accommodate by changes in associative factor labour costs: by shifts in productivity and wages. Unfortunately as Germany’s currency-mates, productivity rises slowly by the best of times and wages fall slowly, even by the worst of times. Meanwhile,servant demand,both surrounded the euro location and without,is constrained at financial consolidation,by private-sector deleveraging,by the privation of an independent monetary policy around the euro-area periphery, and at central-bank conservatism in the face of the zero lower bound outdoor the euro zone.

Germany’s current-account extra therefore reduces demand across the wealthy world, other things equal, exerting deflationary oppression Germany’s critics, including the Treasury,appear apt be arguing that whether Germany’s authority did more apt raise domestic demand,by running monetary deficits case in point or at not using macroprudential tools to rein in its housing prosperity,next overall demand would be higher and life would be easier.

Maybe. But perhaps never And interestingly, Mr Krugman helps apt annotate why that might never be the case in a describing the damage Germany is deed Germany, he notes,is playing a symbol similar to that played at France during the Depression.

France, with its undervalued currency,soggy up a big proportion of the world’s gold reserves in 1930-31, [suggesting] that France was responsible for nearly half the universal deflation that took space over that duration.

Gold mainly constrained demand. An economy that attempted to amplify its economy too aggressively would undergo inflation, which amounted to a ascend in the shadow-price of gold relative apt its allowable spend That, in corner would guide to outflows of gold, depleting the economy’s reserves and eventually forcing it to depart the gold standard.

France, the melee runs, enjoyed an undervalued currency (meaning that it returned apt the gold standard back the First World War along a franc price of gold that advantaged French exports). When alien countries bought more merchandise from France than they sold apt France they had apt shift gold reserves to France to disburse as the distinction And their shrinking gold reserves implied the need for tighter waiter monetary policy. Something similar namely business today; German surpluses levy a contractionary force aboard euro-area trading partners that can only be eliminated amongst compensation cuts, which are generally brought about at mass unemployment.

But Mr Krugman leaves out a fussy detail from the story (which is told in a very interesting at Douglas Irwin). The gold standard would have played a pernicious temperament not matter what,merely France’s conduct made the dynamic Mr Krugman describes much worse than it ought have been. Gold inflows should have allowed the French economy apt expand the servant money supply boosting the French economy. Indeed,along apt the assumed “rules of the game” in the gold-standard era France had a responsibility to rise its currency furnish in line with gold inflows in order apt assist the universal adjustment and discourage its sucking up all the world’s gold.

But France was never interested in suffering from higher inflation or in losing its export advantage, and so it sterilised its gold inflows: gold came in,barely the currency afford did never grow in tread As Mr Irwin , French gold reserves rose 160% between 1928 and 1932 only its money supply didn’t grow along all Had the French allowed more inflation,next higher French wages would have facilitated an adjustment in the real exchange rate, the French current-account more would have shrunk, and the crushing demand drain would have been greatly reduced.

So instantly the question is: who controls German inflation? To a quite important extent German inflation namely controlled at the European Central Bank. According to the , year-on-year inflation in the euro area namely down apt just 0.7%. If euro-area inflation were higher German inflation would be higher. In any meaningful sense the entire gold standard analogy and always the complaining almost Germany namely a ruddy herring,as the ECB tin construct euros at aspiration and can therefore banish any deflationary cruelty emerging from Germany. (So could the Federal Reserve,for that matter; whether the Treasury namely pessimistic with America’s weak demand it ought discern within the Eccles Building for someone to reprehend)

That doesn’t let Germany off the fasten,although for a few reasons. One is that meantime the ECB might be sadistically obsessed with inexpensive inflation, Germany could still potentially do someone nearly thedistribution of demand across the euro place If goods and services prices are mostly decisive at lax across the euro-area economy as a entire meantime wages are mostly a function of national labour-market tightness,then monetary incentive in Germany would heave German wages more than it would lift German inflation alternatively euro-area inflation). That policy would sneakily shift demand from Germany apt the periphery without bringing down the contractionary ECB beat.

The ECB might also be interested in seeing faster inflation and demand growth in the euro area but nervous virtually using asset purchases to offer and engineer it. Asset purchases in Europe are politically filled since the ECB would inevitably annihilate up buying periphery bonds. The ECB might never offset German fiscal incentive in that case, and so Germany could individually heave euro-area demand.

Third,an should never discount the Bundesbank’s influence aboard ECB attitudes toward inflation. (It’s against it.)

In this maniac world of too-little demand, Germany deserves editorial as its surplus But given that rich-world central banks could get printing and solve the problem of too-little demand aboveboard that criticism could be more usefully allocated somewhere.

and its customers are happy apt disburse a dividend as products that frequently offer mini more than average performance.

WITH Microsoft’s venerable operating system, Windows XP,about to be cut slack forward its creators, Babbage has been upgrading always his geriatric “wintel” computers apt Windows 7 For those who have not yet done so, a word of warning: after April 8th, there longing be no more security patches, bug fixes and free alternatively even paid) online alms for Windows XP, as Microsoft ends its extended support for the ageing software. From afterward on anyone who continues to use it will be at the mercy of hackers, who longing doubtless find additionally more devious ways of exploiting vulnerabilities in the 13-year-old operating system and applications that flee aboard it.

In making the transfer Babbage has avoided Microsoft’s latest operating system, Windows eight It does things a morsel also differently as his liking. Besides, having flopped badly, Windows eight swiftly among version 8.1 is never expected to be with us much longer. Microsoft namely immediately rushing out Windows nine In deserving course Babbage will leapfrog apt that instead. Meanwhile, Windows 7 aspiration do impartial nicely. Official advocate for it longing last till at least 2020.

By and huge the upgrade process has gone without a hitch, even though migrating from Windows XP apt Windows seven is not as cozy as upgrading direct from Windows Vista (XP’s loathed and short-lived successor) to Windows 7 Fortunately, there is an noted tool aboard the market called PCmover that makes the migration a breeze perceive “”, September 6th 2013).

Even so, it has never been simply a matter of swapping an chip of software for another With ages ranging from two apt a dozen years, some of the components among his fleet of workhorse computers have had to be replaced. Old computers tend apt be finite onward their skimpy aggregate of memory. A ten-year antecedent a gigabyte of random-access memory (RAM) was considered affluent for most bureau chores. Few machines had slots for more than two gigabytes. But given the bloated size of today’s software, four gigabytes of RAM has chance approximately momentous and eight gigabytes pleasing

That has meant swapping out the motherboards of several legacy machines, and buying more memory as well as the mysterious multi-core processor. In addition,old power supplies have had to be replaced with beefier ones. While a computer’s video audio and networking were once handled by separate circumference boards, such services are quickly built into the motherboard itself. Despite the integration, modern motherboards—thanks among colossal part apt their accessory memory and more mighty processors—use a good knob more beverage.

At this point, readers may well ask why afflict The phase and money spent bringing legacy machines up apt scratch is hardly worth the effort. Thanks to Moore’s Law, computers—especially desktop machines—are so inexpensive and robust nowadays that the apparent answer is apt junk anything over five years old buy modern replacements complete with up-to-date operating systems, and have done with it.

All true. But that misses one momentous point: there namely big satisfaction to be had from salvaging superannuated gear and putting it back into productive use. That is particularly the case now the average calculator offers access more power than maximum users generally need. Besides, there are interesting lessons apt be academic concerning the price consumers expenditure as progress.

In this case, Babbage has been struck by the way the additional “value” of the latest computers—in terms of their better (ie, lower) price-performance ratio—has also constantly been paid as by a loss of quality. He doubts quite much if it ambition be feasible to upgrade today’s computers in the access that older ones could so available be made present again.

Out of curiosity, Babbage accustom a digital micrometer to contrast the thickness of the metal chassis of his 12-year-old desktop with the innards of a two-year-old. The former employed 19-gauge (0.0359-inch) aluminium,while the latter was made of 35-gauge (0.0075-inch) mild steel Taking the alter stiffnesses of the two metals into account, the older case was double as rugged as the newer an The latter could be accessible bent along inadvertently applying finger oppression among the bad places. By contrast, Babbage wore out several Dremel cutting and grinding wheels modifying the 12-year-old age case apt adjust a modern motherboard.

To be equitable the older calculator set Babbage backward over $2,000 among today’s buck meantime the newer an cost nearly $650. Meanwhile, the later machine had seven times the processing power per USD of the earlier one ahead the upgrade). On price and performance,next today’s computers offer colossal value.

But consumer satisfaction comes never barely from getting the best bang for the buck. Quality counts,also However,meantime price and performance can be measured instantly quality is a far more deceptive attribute. In a product it can include durability,reliability even serviceability. Does the product exceed the specifications expected? Are there more features than usual? Is it thoughtfully designed and pleasing amid advent Apple understands this better than anyone else, and its customers are joyful apt disburse a bonus for products that frequently offer micro more than average performance.

Paying an Apple perquisite of 35% alternatively so is an thing. But few would expenditure 200% more (ie, $2,000 versus $650) as a calculator equitable for it was built favor a Sherman tank. That he accepts. But what bothers Babbage is whether—in the trade-off between quality-control and value-engineering—manufacturers have sacrificed also much among order to strike the price points they believe maximise returns. In short, would they be better off making more Mercedes machines and less Toyota ones?

Mention of the motor industry namely apposite. Where the computer manufacturers have had the benefit of Moore’s Law to help them drive down the price-performance ratio of their products, carmakers have had apt depend aboard value-engineering approximately exclusively. And meantime today’s motor cars offer unprecedented merit within terms of price, performance, safety and oil economy, they have accident more complicated than ever, more complicated and priceless apt fix and their economic lifespan severely shortened.

Value-engineering has much to answer for The term was coined by General Electric during the second world war to depict a access of finding substitutes as materials then in short afford It turned out that,within some cases, the substitutes reduced manufacturing costs and actually made the products better. In theory, value-engineering seeks the optimal balance between lowered costs,added productivity and improved quality. In train the quality aspect constantly gets short shrift. In such instances, value-engineering becomes mini more than cost-cutting.

The guiding principle of value-engineering is an analysis of function—ie, what something does,never what it is Once the amount drivers are identified, a production namely redesigned so as to have a lower component calculate and to be made of cheaper material. A widget that was initially machined from a block of metal may finish up being injection-moulded from plastic. To perceive value-engineering within action,watch underneath the bonnet (hood) of a modern automobile The majority of unstressed parts are injection mouldings. Little more than a decade ago they were made of steel brass alternatively aluminium. Guess which last the longer, which are easier apt nail?

Babbage has long thought the make-believe “one-hoss shay” memorialised onward Oliver Wendell Holmes apt be the maximum sublime piece of engineering ever conceived. The fictional deacon in the humorous poem crafted a two-wheeled chaise among such a plausible fashion that, with every chapter made as strong as the other, it could never crash down. The buggy worked flawlessly for a 100 years. Then, finally,always the parts wore out simultaneously. “[I]t went apt pieces always in a little while / All in no time and nothing first / Just as bubbles do meantime they explode.” How Babbage wishes cars—and computers, too—were built as logically and as well.

So Austria has some 0.five outstanding trillion outer debt

Are Erste Bank, Raiffeizen Bank, Telekom Austria, Unicredit Bank shares plus bonds likewise dangerous?

see this World Bank fine data map plus rather 2012

- interest rate spread see it is not that lofty among CEE,besides Bulgaria, Romania, Croatia) it namely correlated as the following years for some reason.
- subsequently discern from WB the non-performing loans and click aboard points tab to see percentages.

it looks prefer the interest rate-spread is insufficient apt cover the non-performing loans among CEE in the short escape plus there is not growth,for of the high interest rate.

So Austria has some 0.5 outstanding trillion outer debt (70% of GDP Gov, 60% Corporate,(also 60% corp.maid For this reason they allowed 1/2 of Telekom Austria (some eight telecoms) apt be bought as 1.four bill (with 36 PE ratio, which may work negative backward Q1 2014 results) – obviously anticipating financial troubles offensive security plus reputation hazard

Raiffezen – annexed capital as king adequacy, Erste is with minimal profits, Unicredit got speculative rating surrounded Italy. Telekom Austria has some four billion EUR debt – whether rating agencies immediately give rating it ambition probably be JUNK,whether you discern web site visits of Austrian, Bulgarian, Croation mall – it namely correlated with buyer action and the decline continues. For junk debt, the interest rate namely 10-30% along apt Wikipedia (so something as 2/3 probability of bankruptcy). What debt of Telekom Austria is grasp at Austrian Banks?
Similar apt poisonous American debt, that was not-correlated for a several years plus got high rating plus next all debt got perilous together quickly Austrian Banks plus Telecoms are connected plus may sunk affix Banks have nearly 2/3 of assets among CEE along to their reports. This ought be 0.three trillion EUR assets.

… And the names of them were Aholah the elder

You have raised an important point – did Yahweh choose blondes?? I longing research into this matter aboard a priority basis. However, what we understand for sure almost Yahweh is that he liked experienced women, as is evident from the bible:

In Ezekiel 23 we have the story virtually two brunette sisters, Aholah and Aholibah.

“Aholah and Aholibah were sisters,both of whom were marital apt Yahweh.

The word of the LORD came afresh unto me, saying, Son of man, there were two women, the daughters of an mother: … And the names of them were Aholah the elder, and Aholibah her sister. And they were mine, and they bare sons and daughters. Ezekiel 23:1-4

But the marriage between God and his two wives was a troubled an The older sister, Aholah, was unfaithful apt Yahweh, having sex with her Assyrian neighbors.

Aholah played the harlot while she was mine; and she doted aboard her lovers,on the Assyrians her neighbours, Which were clothed with blue, captains and rulers,all of them pleasant juvenile men, horsemen riding upon horses. 23:5-6

She committed her whoredoms with them, with entire them that were the chosen men of Assyria, and with all on whom she doted: with entire their idols she defiled herself. 23:7

Neither left she her whoredoms brought from Egypt: as in her youth they plan with her, and they bruised the breasts of her virginity, and poured their whoredom upon her. 23:8

Wherefore I have delivered her into the hand of her lovers, into the hand of the Assyrians, upon whom she doted. These discovered her nakedness: they took her sons and her daughters, and slew her with the sword. 23:9-10

Her sister Aholibah … was more corrupt in her inordinate adore than she, and within her whoredoms more than her sister in her whoredoms. She doted upon the Assyrians her neighbours, captains and rulers clothed most gorgeously, horsemen riding upon horses,always of them pleasant young men. Then I saw that she was defiled, that they took both an access 23:11-13

And that she additional her whoredoms: as meantime she saw men pourtrayed upon the wall, the images of the Chaldeans pourtrayed with vermilion … And as soon as she saw them with her eyes, she doted upon them, and sent messengers unto them into Chaldea. 23:14-16

And the Babylonians came apt her into the mattress of adore and they defiled her with their whoredom, and she was polluted with them, So she discovered her whoredoms, and discovered her nakedness. 23:17-18a

Then my mind was alienated from her,favor as my mind was alienated from her sister. 23:18b

Yet she multiplied her whoredoms,among calling to remembrance the days of her teens wherein she had played the harlot among the land of Egypt. 23:19

Where she doted upon men with donkey-sized penises and ejaculate as voluminous as horses.

For she doted upon their paramours, whose flesh is as the meat of asses, and whose issue is favor the issue of horses. 23:20

Which reminded God afresh of the lewdness of her teens where the Egyptians fondled her youthful breasts.

Thus thou calledst to remembrance the lewdness of thy teens,within bruising thy teats by the Egyptians as the paps of thy teens 23:21

To punish Aholibah, God brought lovers against her “on every side.”

Therefore, O Aholibah,thus saith the Lord GOD; Behold, I ambition heave up thy lovers against thee, from whom thy mind namely alienated, and I aspiration bring them against thee aboard each side. 23:22

And I will set my spite against thee, and they shall handle furiously with thee: they shall take away thy neb and thine ears; and … they shall take thy sons and thy daughters; and thy leftovers shall be devoured onward the blaze 23:25

He forced Ahobiah apt drink from Aholah’s glass to suck it out, and to pluck off her own breasts.

Thus saith the Lord GOD; Thou shalt drink of thy sister’s glass deep and large: Thou shalt be loaded with drunkenness and sorrow … Thou shalt even drink it and suck it out, and pull off thine own breasts: for I have oral it, saith the Lord GOD. 23:34

Then God killed Ahobiah onward stoning her to death and killing her with a sword. Then he killed her kid (which are also his kid and burned their houses–to punish them for forgetting him.

Because thou hast forgotten me, and cast me afterward thy behind,correspondingly bear thou likewise thy lewdness and thy whoredoms. 23:35

For accordingly saith the Lord GOD … stone them with stones, and dispatch them with their swords; they shall slay their sons and their daughters, and blaze up their houses with burn 23:46-47

In this access taught women a lesson. Don’t behave prefer God’s wayward wives (Aholah and Ahobiah) alternatively God aspiration do likewise to you.

Thus aspiration I cause lewdness apt cease out of the land, that entire women may be taught never apt do after your lewdness. 23:48″

Therefore, it seems that Yahweh:-

- Liked seasoned brunettes.

- Punishment of plucking ones own breasts was a newness by that period.

- Stoning is never enough – it have to be followed onward beheading with a sward.

000 employees

AT A Montreal business conference last week called C2MTL, participants were encouraged apt put aboard a blindfold,slide into a dry pond fraught with plastic balls, and, over loudish dance music search solutions with strangers to challenges ranging from cutting youth unemployment to making affair ventures involving sex more respectable. Abigail Posner, Google’s head of strategy and a C2MTL speaker says that her experience among the brainstorming tarn was “funky” enough to elevate her and others’ inhibitions and the ideas produced were better for it. Put on according advertising deputy Sid Lee and Cirque du Soleil,either based within Montreal, C2MTL bills itself as a affair conference “somewhere between talent and insanity”.

C2MTL strives to unleash the synergy amid business and creativity,or C2, as the acronym has it (MTL stands as Montreal), during a three-day shindig surrounded a remodelled 19th-century shipyard. This year virtually 4,000 tickets were sold along $3,600 alternatively a morsel fewer as early-bird alternatively team purchases). Nearly half of participants were repeat customers. A sister conference, C2EU,is planned for after spring within Madrid and the C2 franchise want continue growing until every continent has its own yearly accident says Jean-Fran?ois Bouchard, C2MTL’s curator and owner of Sid Lee. That’s not wrong as a gig that began equitable two years ago.

Glitz is chapter of the paint Grandees speak amid a conference hall with lighting and sound systems worthy of an Ibiza discotheque. (Speakers this yearly included James “Avatar” Cameron and Muhammad Yunus, a Bangladeshi Nobel laureate of microcredit fame; next year’s line-up includes Chelsea Clinton and Kevin Spacey.) Art installations are everywhere. Cirque du Soleil performers, jazz musicians, and DJ royalty enliven evening soirées. One celebration was held among exhibits surrounded the Musée d’art contemporain de Montréal. One repast was accompanied onward the sounds of a harpist; anew onward the tinkling of diners’ chisels breaking up oversized slabs of chocolate aboard a desk illuminated with camera flashes.

It all makes for a seductive “creative ecosystem”,to lend C2 lingo. Indeed, many participants showed a disability for the plentiful, fashionable present affair jargon aboard offer at C2MTL. To beyond endeavours as lofty as “humanising digital”, some participants busy within “commando networking” and even such activities as “design thinking” by the “thin edge of the innovation wedge”. And additionally for all the contrived verbiage, a comely morsel of C2MTL’s success lies among its aptitude apt help the interpersonal connections and collaboration that aid spawn appealing ideas.

During last week’s conference 25 C2MTL commando networkers skilled amid buttonholing and eavesdropping roamed amongst workshops and meet-and-greets to orchestrate handshakes reckoned threaten to navigate to lush exchanges between participants. MBA students as the highest chapter these networking facilitators clothe black apt symbolise their role “as shadows” rather than protagonists, says Marie Eve Boisvert, C2MTL’s spokeswoman.

Beyond this, C2MTL offers free confidential consulting. In one sofa-furnished area half a dozen experts from HEC Montréal, a happening educate helped participants think amongst a five-step “creative manifesto” near to endeavours such as promoting wrestling matches, marketing medicinal devices and designing an aerodrome that bores fewer A garage remodelled with a nod apt Google, Harley-Davidson and additional firms that began surrounded one was the venue as “crowd-sourced consulting”. Entrepreneurs were given a microphone to quest advice from conference participants or better additionally arrest investors’ interest.

C2MTL has been hailed as a “blend between Burning Man and TED”. That’s a extend Talks at C2MTL are good-looking only mostly a nick beneath the bar set onward TED conferences. And C2MTL doesn’t offer the free hugs, occasional nudity, and other accoutrements of “radical self-expression” by Burning Man pow-wows within the Nevada desert.

But never mind. With its stimulating talks, parties, and business-conducive environment, C2MTL has carved out a singular brand set to grow amongst franchise and,not mistrust imitation. One of C2MTL’s speakers last week, Jonathan Becher of SAP, chairs the strategy committee behind the German software giant’s annual Sapphire conference within Orlando, Florida. Roughly 20,000 employees, customers, and prospects attend. Referring to this as “borrow with pride”, Mr Becher says that he namely picking up ideas from C2MTL to spice up his own company’s gig. Sapphire certainly could do with a morsel more sport.

Brazil has kicked off the world’s greatest football competition plus to commemorate The Economist has created a free download featuring special content aboard this year’s competition. Download it for free now.

Brazil has kicked off the world’s greatest football competition plus to commemorate The Economist has created a free download featuring special content on this year’s competition. Download it as free immediately.

Brazil has kicked off the world’s greatest football competition and apt celebrate The Economist has created a free download featuring special content aboard this year’s competition. Download it for free swiftly.

Brazil has kicked off the world’s greatest football competition plus to commemorate The Economist has created a free download featuring special content aboard this year’s competition. Download it for free quickly.

There namely not mention of periodical parks” and the huge problem of under-financing of protected areas among developing countries. No mention of palm oil plantations as a driver of deforestation among Indonesia

The following letter was sent to the Editor aboard Sept. 21.
As a long-time subscriber an of us) and as conservationists, we eagerly awaited your special report aboard biodiversity. While the story includes some appealing information and analysis, it has striking errors and omissions. The result is a sunnier picture than the prove warrants.

There is not mention of journal parks” and the big problem of under-financing of protected areas surrounded developing countries. No mention of palm oil plantations as a driver of deforestation amid Indonesia, nor of unauthorized logging and gold mining spearheading destruction of Amazonian forests. No information aboard the observed impacts of air alter aboard nature — although you confess they are potentially “calamitous” — for you have written ahead virtually ventilation different No mention of the nipping degradation of marine ecosystems, of coral bleaching alternatively ocean acidification. And not mention of the opener character as indigenous folk within conservation (described forward the World Bank as a “win-win”),antagonism the truth that traditional indigenous territories may hold 80 percent of the world’s biodiversity.

Your anecdote aboard Brazil — which you call the maximum important country as biodiversity — needs correction. Deforestation did absolutely slow below President Lula da Silva,only below President Dilma Rousseff the trend has reversed. You say deforestation “may rebound”. It anyhow has, thanks to weakening of laws protecting forests aboard private lands along with languid governance and corruption throughout the Amazon frontier zone. Working along the front lines, we discern that illegal logging and paucity of enforcement is still a very huge problem. Large infrastructure projects such as Belo Monte dam are drawing more people to the Amazon. Proposed changes to Brazil’s constitution that would allow resource development aboard indigenous lands namely a big concern as a threat to natural ecosystems and indigenous cultures.

Finally, we are surprised that The Economist did not point out the cheap cost tag as conservation. Almost absurdly inexpensive among relation to the economic and other benefits provided according natural ecosystems and compared with spending aboard other things (the aggregate governments spend on environmentally disadvantageous bonus is three times what is needed for comprehensive global conservation and many more times what we are truly spending).

- Anne Lambert and Barbara Zimmerman
International Conservation Fund of Canada

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